Sana Ahmad

Sana Ahmad
David Ausserhofer


sana.ahmad [at]
E 422
Visiting Researcher of the Research Group


Sana Ahmad wrote her PhD dissertation on content moderation value chains in India by focusing on the power assymetries between global tech firms and Indian subcontractors, the role of state policies in facilitating this relationship, and how these macro mechanisms structure the workplace dynamics of labor control and resistance. During this time, she was affiliated as a research fellow with the WZB Berlin Social Science Center and the Weizenbaum Institute.

Currently, she is employed as a researcher at the Helmut Schmidt University in Hamburg, and affiliated as a guest researcher with GAP.

More information on her work can be found at

Selected Publications

Ahmad, S., Greb, M. (2022). Automating social media content moderation: implications for governance and labour discretion, Work in the Global Economy (published online ahead of print 2022). Retrieved Nov 2, 2022, from

Ahmad, S. (2022). Who moderates my social media? Locating Indian workers in the global content moderation practices. In C. Strippel, S. Paasch-Colberg, M. Emmer & J. Trebbe (Eds.), Challenges and perspectives of hate speech analysis (pp. 74-88). Forthcoming.

Ahmad, S., Krzywdzinski, M. (2022). Moderating in Obscurity: How Indian Content Moderators Work in Global Content Moderation Value Chains. In M. Graham, & F. Ferrari, (Eds.), Digital Work in the Planetary Market. International Development Research Centre & MIT Press. Forthcoming.

Ahmad, Sana (2021): Within and Without: Analysing Offshored Content Moderation to India. (n.d.). Weizenbaum Institut. Retrieved April 6, 2021, from

Ahmad, Sana (2020): COVID-19 and the Future of Content Moderation | WZB. (n.d.). Retrieved July 2, 2020, from

Ahmad, Sana (2018): A risk worth taking: Studying content moderation on social media platforms | Digital Society Blog. (2018, July 24). HIIG.

Sinders, C., Ahmad, S. (2021). The labor behind the tools: Using design thinking methods to examine content moderation software. In: ACM Interactions 28(4), 6-8, New York.