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Learning, training and continuing education are of increasing importance, especially in information or knowledge societies. Thus, the consequences of being less educated for life chances are dramatic. From sociological and economic vantage points, we analyze educational, training, and occupational biographies as a consequence of institutional arrangements varying across countries and over time. Key themes include the cumulative processes of educational and social stratification over the life course and the resulting inequalities in employment opportunities. Also at the center of our research program is the intertwining of life courses and employment careers in partnerships and families.