Handbook of Quality of Life in the Enlarged European Union
Recent enlargement to the east made the European Union a more diverse social space and brought it into more direct contact with the social and cultural aftermath of communism. Sound empirical knowledge on heterogeneity and homogeneity in European societies after the EU enlargement is lacking. By bringing together a collection of informative analyses of key domains of social life in the new member states and candidate countries, viewed in comparison both to each other and to the "old" EU-15, this handbook will help social scientists, policy-makers and other observers cope with the unfamiliarity of this new world. In particular, it examines the implications of the new member states' membership for the future course of EU integration. This substantial text contains 17 chapters with a focus on social conditions, such as: poverty and living conditions; social inclusion and life satisfaction; work and labour markets; family and housing.
Generationenbeziehungen im Wohlfahrtsstaat
Lebensbedingungen und Einstellungen von Altersgruppen im internationalen Vergleich
Both the aging of society and changing family constellations are lines of development in today's welfare states. These processes jeopardize the government's provision of welfare services, leading some authors to infer that there are distributional conflicts between generations. This study focuses on the questions of how government and the family shape generational conditions of life and how this interaction affects the sociopolitical attitudes of age groups in four strategically selected countries - Germany, France, Italy, and Sweden. In particular, the authors inquire into the retirement benefits and material situation of life among seniors, the care of older people, family policy and its benefits, and the participation of mothers in the labor market. Comparison of the countries is intended to explain how differently generational coexistence can be organized and which strategies are proving viable in the light of aging societies. The analyses show the variety of ways in which distributional conflicts can be regulated through the interplay of generational conditions in the welfare state and generational relations within the family.
Arbeitszeitpolitik im Lebensverlauf
Edition der Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, Bd. 212
Life courses are diversifying more and more, with society witnessing the emergence of new combinations and a host of different transitions between phases of employment and unemployment, qualification, and child care. Uncertainties and risks in occupational biographies have multiplied, too. The course of people's lives is marked by distinctly "imbalanced" distributions of time and money in the form of cumulative time stress, as is the case, for example, in the phase of middle age. The authors ask what new demands, opportunities, and ambiguities are arising from these developments when it comes to scheduling work time with a person's entire working life in mind rather than only days, weeks, or months. New instruments for work scheduling are presented (e.g., models based on the life course). The authors evaluate them, drawing on initial experience with them in business and industry. Practice in other countries is examined as well, especially that in The Netherlands, a pioneer in "life-course policy." The volume identifies practical issues, current arenas of action, and unresolved research questions about this young topic area. It contributes to the debate on demographic change, a discourse in which promoting employability and improving compatibility between different spheres of life depend crucially on reorganizing work time in the life course.
Wirtschaftliche und soziale Risiken auf den Arbeitsmärkten von Künstlern
Few labor markets have a thinner line between success and failure than those for artists. Although some professionals in music and the performing or fine arts regularly earn top incomes, most of their colleagues constantly face an uncertain economic existence. Rather than losing appeal, however, the artistic professions have attracted increasing numbers of people since the 1970s. Given this trend, the author explores the economic and social situation of artists in Germany, beginning with a description of the labor markets for musicians, actors, and artists. The analysis describes the specific structural features of employment in the arts (dependent and self-employment, hybrid employment relations, temporary contracts, part-time work, multiple jobs, employment with or without mandatory social security coverage, and variable volume of work) and elaborates on changes in the job supply. The focus then turns to the income situation, unemployment risk, and old-age benefits of people engaged in these three occupational groups. The author also inquires about the degree to which institutional arrangements such as the Social Security for Self-employed Artists Act, the Unemployment Insurance Act, copyright law, and collective institutions like unions and professional associations help prevent and overcome economic and social risks. The individual strategies that artists themselves use to cope with such risks receive attention as well.
Childhood: Changing Contexts
Comparative Social Research, Vol. 25
Demographic and societal changes are strongly affecting the contexts of childhood and the experience of being a child. At the same time, across social groups and across societies, diversities and inequalities in childhood are taking new forms. In the developed world in particular, children's welfare, their education, the division of power and responsibilities of different social actors have entered the public agenda, at a national and supranational level. Public concern over issues such as fertility rates, working mothers, early childhood education and care as well as solemn international declarations of children's rights are examples of the ongoing politicization of childhood. Drawing both on micro and macro, national and comparative studies, this volume of "Comparative Social Research" traces some of the trends and analyzes in comparative perspective - how these trends affect images and practices of childhood and transform responsibilities for children. The volume's focus is mainly on children in developed countries, but attention is also paid to transnational diversities and to the impact of globalization through the experiences of migrant children and of children living through the processes of modernization in the developing world.
Interdisciplinary and Cross-National Perspectives
This book is the first of its kind to provide an up-to-date review of theories and research on skill formation in psychology, economics, political science, and sociology. It addresses issues of skill learning and measurement, institutional and policy differences among countries, and the issue of skill formation across the life course and disparities among socioeconomic groups. Today, marked changes in skill requirements in modern societies seem to be common sense, yet major questions about the processes of skill formation remain puzzlingly unresolved. Among them are, first, basic questions about what we mean when we talk about skills, qualifications, and competencies. Second, the book deals with questions concerning the institutions in which skills are trained and learned, such as "Are market economies and firms systematically underinvesting in skills?" Finally, the book advances our knowledge on issues of provision, access, and returns to training.
Families, Ageing and Social Policy
Intergenerational Solidarity in European Welfare States
Series "Globalization and Welfare"
Series "Globalization and Welfare"
Demographic development in Europe has far-reaching impacts on intergenerational relations. Increased average life span means that the share of people caring for both and parents is steadily growing. The number of childless couples is rising, and more and more children are growing up without siblings. The authors offer the first comprehensive picture of Europe's changing constellations of generations. Nursing care, financial support, and attending behavior in the family is analyzed in terms of the giving and the receiving generations alike. An important question concerns the role of the welfare state, whose financial and infrastructural assistance varies in scope and form in Europe. The analysis takes developments in many European states into consideration. The authors devote particular attention to the special characteristics of generational relations in migrant communities, for which there arise specific issues such as the family ties that continue to exist in the country of origin.
Full Employment in Europe
Managing Labour Marktet Transitions and Risks
Transitional Labour Markets (TLM) - defined as legitimate, negotiated and politically supported sets of various employment options in critical events over the life course - are an essential ingredient of modern full employment strategies. After assessing the European Employment Strategy, this book offers a detailed comparative analysis of employment performance for selected European member states and the United States. It suggests that successful employment systems arise from a new paradigm of flexibility and security ('flexicurity') the balance of which varies according to countries' institutional paths. Whilst there is no 'best practice', TLM theory does provide normative and analytical principles that can be generalised for various institutional settings. This book also provides good practice examples for managing critical transitions over the life course - from education to employment, from one job to another, from unemployment to employment, from private activities to gainful work and from employment to retirement - and develops the contours for extending unemployment insurance to work-life insurance.
Reform der Arbeitsvermittlung
Uniformierungsdruck in der Bundesagentur für Arbeit
This study shows that the strategies and practice of the public employment service in Germany are converging more and more. In the wake of the centralist Hartz reforms, the diversity of the implementation models used by local job placement agencies is declining, as is the creative potential of the Federal Employment Agency. Biases of the adopted reform strategy, such as the increasing standardization of placement models, are facilitating the spread of unintended side effects and contradictory effects of reform. The restructuring of the Federal Employment Agency, for example, has led to paradoxes affecting internal organizational governance, operational job placement, and legitimation. The author shows that these reforms are not about politically neutral administrative modernization, as professed. Instead, he sees institutional governance undergoing changes with which the normative principles and practice of Germany's public employment service are being significantly altered.
Findigkeit in unsicheren Zeiten
Ergebnisse des Expertisenwettbewerbs "Arts and Figures - GeisteswissenschaftlerInnen im Beruf", Bd. 1
Following up a competition for young academics in the 2007 "Year of the Humanities", this volume deals with the situation of scholars in the liberal arts. The contributions explore the disadvantages encountered by liberal arts university graduates as opposed to those experienced by graduates of other fields. The problems include an above-average unemployment rate, a significantly greater prevalence of precarious employment arrangements, and relatively low income. The goal of this three-part book is to provide an empirical statistical survey of occupational fields in the humanities as a basis for exploring current options and future opportunities available to this group of academics. This first part presents a general analysis of the occupations that liberal arts scholars have entered, the change in their chances on the labor market over time, and the development of alternative fields of employment. The second part of the book focuses on professional specialization through continuous education and training and on the emergence of new occupational groups at the interface between the university and the knowledge society. The third part studies the career paths of humanities scholars in the United States from their university study and postgraduate work to their professions. It also compares the labor-market opportunities of these scholars in Germany and Great Britain.
Erlöse - Kosten - Qualität: Macht die Krankenhausträgerschaft einen Unterschied?
Eine vergleichende Untersuchung von Trägerunterschieden im akutstationären Sektor in Deutschland und den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika
Although few countries have as many private hospitals as Germany does, researchers in that country have given little attention to the question of how the organizational behavior of private hospitals differs from that of public and nonprofit ones. This volume presents a comparison of costs, prices, revenues, and service quality. The author asks whether systematic behavioral differences between the three types of hospitals are discernible. The first part first contrasts these types and elaborates their ideal typical features. As most of the relevant research on this matter refers to the institutional arrangements in the United States, the second part of the study turns to the U.S.'s pluralism of hospital types. It shows that little or no difference exists between them in terms of costs and quality but that profits are greater at private hospitals than at others. In the third part of the book, the author's own empirical study on Germany confirms that private hospitals that a part of a network take in more revenue than public or nonprofit hospitals do for the same service.
40 Years of Research on Rent Seeking
Vol. 1: Theory of Rent Seeking
Vol. 2: Applications: Rent Seeking in Practice
Vol. 2: Applications: Rent Seeking in Practice
These two volumes provide a new, extensive collection of significant academic research on rent seeking, from its beginning to the present. The term "rent seeking" has been coined by Gordon Tullock in a seminal paper entitled "The welfare costs of tariffs, monopolies, and theft". He drew attention to an important phenomenon: property rights or economic rents are not exogenously attributed to, and owned by individuals or firms. Instead, effort that is wasteful from a social point of view needs to be expended to defend or acquire them. The two volumes collect some of the significant theoretical and empirical contributions to this problem, among them a number of papers from journals that few libraries or scholars will own. Researchers in the field of rent seeking will find it useful to have this collection of texts as a reference manual. The book editors provide a thorough introductory survey of the literature and summarize the papers included in the two volumes. Volume 1 focuses on theoretical developments. Volume 2 focuses on rent seeking in practice. The applied research demonstrates that the logic of rent seeking provides a powerful lens through which to observe and understand a broad range of economic, political, and social phenomena.
Föderalismuskommission II: Neuordnung von Autonomie und Verantwortung
In March 2007 the German Bundestag and Bundesrat jointly created a commission to reconceive the fiscal relations between the federal and state governments in the Federal Republic of Germany (Federalism Commission II). Proposals for reforming the rules on public debt range from a total ban on federal and state debt to elaborate early-warning systems, cyclically determined limitations on new debt, dissolution of mutual-support agreements between the federal government and the states, and a ban on insolvency declared by the states. The proposals for reforming the competence of the federal states to raise revenue are similarly extensive. On one side are those observers who argue that upholding the status quo is the only way to ensure the uniformity of living conditions in Germany. On the other side are those in favor of granting the states the right to impose surcharges. Among them are people who even advocate giving the states complete autonomy for certain kinds of taxes. The book casts light on the issues from economic and legal perspectives.
Change in SMEx
Towards a New European Capitalism?
In the debate on the varieties of capitalism, most attention is given to large corporations. If listed on capital markets, they are not only a preferred target of new actors and rules, but are also perceived as a driving force for institutional change and globalization. Most, if not all, institutional features of the distinct versions of capitalism have been analyzed only with regard to this type of enterprise. This book takes the view that European capitalism cannot be understood without taking small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) into account. It argues that the neglect of size differences of firms in various literature has led to shortfalls in understanding the institutional framework and has obscured an important area of institutional and corporate change. This volume employs a comparative perspective to explore the impact of the institutional and structural changes on corporate governance, management culture, and social relationships in SMEs in different European countries.
Professionalisierung der wissenschaftlichen Politikberatung?
Interaktions- und professionssoziologische Perspektiven
Reihe "Science Studies"
Reihe "Science Studies"
The growing number of commissions, advisory boards, and consulting shows that policy-making is becoming increasingly dependent on consulting. Though scientific policy advice still seems to be the most serious form of such communication, it has one problem, however - hardly anyone knows if it works. The aim of this study's author is to eliminate that shortcoming by drawing on the sociology of professions for theoretical analysis of relevant advisory relationships and by conceptualizing the act of consulting as a social relationship. This approach identifies the fundamental problems that arise in scientific policy advice primarily from the task of bringing scientific knowledge to bear on policy-related problems in a way that is helpful to policy-makers. It is thus not only a matter of providing reliable knowledge but also of considering the behavioral alternatives open to the clients. The study shows that scientific advice is in need of professionalization. For instance, rules for good practice are lacking, consulting services are not reviewed by colleagues, and there are no institutions for training scientific consultants.
Verpasste Chancen der Modernisierung?
China zwischen nachholender und alternativer Motorisierung
The widely familiar images of Shanghai's skyline have become the symbol of the "New China," with its accelerated modernization and headlong growth. But where is the road headed? Is the world witnessing "catch-up modernization" in the hegemonic western sense of the model? Or will China take an "alternative Asian path of development"? The authors link these basic questions of modernization theory to the constellation of technological and economic policy relating to China's motorization through 2020 and beyond. A leap frog in development seems possible. The scenario of pursuing a radically new automotive technology could be realistic - and desirable from the standpoint of resources and the environment. In terms of research strategy and industrial policy, building a "post-fossil fuel mobility industry" would indeed be plausible. China would have less existing know-how to unlearn and less fossil-fuel infrastructure to write-off than any other country with an established automotive industry. But analyses also show how many factors indicate the merits of avoiding an alternative path when it comes to modernization as a whole and to China's motorization.
Zukünfte des Automobils
Aussichten und Grenzen der autotechnischen Globalisierung
The car is indisputably attractive. People still see it a status symbol, just as in its early days. Thanks to the innovativeness of automotive manufacturers, the car keeps adapting to sociotechnical changes. But this stability may not last forever. Many crucial develops will determine the car's future. The first of them is the globalization of automotive production. It continues with new participants, presumably at an accelerating rate despite existing overcapacity. The second development is resurgent urbanization and reurbanization. Is the trend headed toward densely populated cities in which motorized ways of life are declining or rather to suburban settings in which they are increasing? The third development bearing on the car's future consists of sociostructural changes. Growing social disparity could be troublesome to industry on both old and enterprising, new automotive markets if the middle strata of the working population with adequate incomes shrinks. Fourth, there is the erosion of the fossil energy base. The volatility of the energy markets increases with each unit of oil that is consumed. The different aspects perpetuating the automobile's dominant function in society are usually considered separately, but aim of this book is an attempt to interlink them through discerning analysis.
Towards a Cosmopolitan Perspective
Mobility is a basic principle of modernity besides others like individuality, rationality, equality, and globality. Only in modern societies can you find a positive connotation of mobility and social change. Beforehand, traveling was not a free choice but a duty and a must. In the modern concept of mobility the thought of a mouldable society and the idea of human beings as subjects on their way to perfection melt together with the idea of the physical, i.e. with spatial movement as the dynamic factor, the "vehicle" or instrument. Taking its cue from this concept, the book presents a movement that begins with the macrosocial transformations linked to mobility and ends with empirical discussions on the new forms of mobility and their implications for everyday life. The book opens with a study of the social changes unique to the second age of modernity, with several contributions pinpointing the contemporary issues of mobility. It continues with a discussion of the implications of these changes for sociological research with respect to the mixing of different disciplines and with the presentation of the concept of motility and the need to consider artefacts as subjects for analysis in their own right. The book then focuses on a series of field examinations, both qualitative and quantitative, of emerging mobilities with contributions from the mobility pioneers and links between mobility forms and family life.
Evaluation und politisches Lernen
Diskursive Zukunftsforschung als Methode der Politikevaluation
This book expands the methodological repertoire of social science. As stated by the title, discursive futures studies serve as to develop a method of evaluation that can promote political learning processes involving various kinds of issues, including normatively contested ones. If political decisions result partly from power struggles and conflicts of conviction, then an evaluation confined solely to imparting facts of science to the policy-making community does not go far enough. Focusing on job placement reform, the author interacts directly with participants to test a prospective evaluation for assessing impacts of current measures. An exploration of basic strategies takes place through a combination of discussion meetings and an anonymous on-line survey. This approach highlights strategies that various interest groups pursue when discussing the efficiency of the job placement service, its sociopolitical mandate, the role of sanctions, and the distribution of public and private responsibilities. As was shown during the study, which ran approximately one year, such transparency facilitates political learning processes.
Information, Kommunikation und Wissen im Mitbestimmungssystem
Schriften der Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, Bd. 70
Codetermination in German businesses is an important element of "good" corporate governance. But globalization and increasing pressure on capital markets have changed its basic framework. The systems of codetermination must adapt to these circumstances and develop accordingly. To the authors, the main way forward is not to abandon the overarching structures that exist but to improve the process of corporate governance. This book's aim is to open the black box of supervisory board work and to study the processes of information, communication, and knowledge mobilization in the corporate system of codetermination in order to improve the understanding of internal work structures affecting the quality of what the supervisory board does. The study is based on a representative survey conducted in 2006 among employee representatives serving on German supervisory boards. The results show that building competence in the supervisory board requires appropriate structures and carefully designed processes for providing information, maintaining open communication, and shaping consensus to the mobilize the board members' potential to make sound corporate decisions and meet the growing demands of the board's work.
Sektorale Innovationsprozesse und die Diskussion über deutsche Innovationsschwächen
Edition der Hans-Böckler-Stiftung 204
The discussion on kinds of capitalism includes the view that "liberal market economies" such as the United States have favored radical innovations more than has been the case with "coordinated market economies" such as Germany. However, a close examination of sectorial innovation processes in the pharmaceutical, telecommunication, and automotive industries shows that reality is more complicated than that. Contrasting "radical" and "incremental" innovations is just as problematic as identifying them with particular sectors and institutional systems. National systems of innovation are not self-contained units; they condition each other's strengths and weaknesses. Government regulation plays a key role in innovation processes everywhere, albeit in different ways. A historical analysis is essential for comprehending the conditions of innovation. The reasons for the relative decline of the German pharmaceutical and telecommunication industries are too different to be subsumed by a simple pattern of explanation. The Germany debate on innovation is still so fixated on promoting technology that it largely excludes questions of the social and ecological quality of innovations and their diffusion.
Öffentlicher Verkehr im Gewährleistungsstaat
Der ÖPNV zwischen Regulierung und Wettbewerb
The 1994 reorganization of the German railroad and the 1996 regionalization of local rail transport initiated the reform of public transport in Germany. The author asks what practical effects the attendant changes have had, what contradictions and new problems have resulted them, and what their underlying causes are. The ensuring state is taken as a model for this investigation's conceptual framework. It portrays the reform processes as part of a systematic move away from having government itself render basic public services and toward having other suppliers take over that responsibility to the greatest extent possible. This approach overcomes the conventional understanding that the state provision of basic public services excludes competition. Nonetheless, the book's detailed analysis of actual practice in public transport shows that the traditional model - noncompetitive delivery of basic public services - still prevails.
Arbeits- und Sozialpolitik in Polen
Interessenvermittlung und politischer Tausch in einem umkämpften Politikfeld
Is Poland the Trojan horse of a deregulated labor policy and a negligible social safety net in the European Union? Using methods of network analysis, the author studies the political decision-making processes and the changing constellation of interests and power in the field of labor and social policy in Poland since 1989. The results contradict the frequently heard assertion that a neoliberal model is dominating. The conflict of the 1980s between "Solidarity" and the communist regime has continued to shape political identities since the regime shift and has created a political culture in which liberal and union-affiliated forces on both the left and the right must form coalitions. The development of labor and social policy in Poland reflects compromises and political exchange between these forces and shows that the basic social conditions of political exchange shifted against the unions in the course of the 1990s.
Wissenschaft unter Beobachtung
Effekte und Defekte von Evaluationen
The examination and evaluation of academia's performance has been important ever since the beginnings of organized science. But the discussions of that performance and the procedures for monitoring it have changed, as shown by the introduction of evaluations in all areas. The aim of these evaluations is by no means only to ensure the quality of research and teaching. The actors in science policy expect them to increase the financial and administrative control over the institutions they fund. Evaluations are thereby developing into a significant instrument for external governance of science and scholarship, one that can entail various kinds of objectives. This possibility is precisely what is feeding the concern that use of evaluations as a multifunctional weapon is having effects that are counterproductive for science and scholarship. The authors focus on the different objectives of evaluations, especially their unintended effects and latent functions, and point out conditions that must be met so that evaluations can encourage learning by scientific institutions.
Wissensproduktion und Wissenstransfer
Wissen im Spannungsfeld von Wissenschaft, Politik und Öffentlichkeit
Reihe "Science Studies"
Reihe "Science Studies"
Even as demands grow for the scientific community to provide knowledge relevant to making policy and taking action, one hears both the complaint about declining trust in science and the call for risk-sensitive, problem-centered, practical research. These polarities raise questions about the foundations, opportunities, and limits of science and about the significance that scientific expertise has in political decisions. Are the structures of science and its priority-setting mechanisms adequately coping with the power and responsibility ensuing from relative autonomy? What informal procedures and forms of policy guidance by scientists and researchers ensure the quality of expertise yet remain appropriate to the context of the political arena? The essays in this volume deal with this issue from various perspectives, centering on two main topics: (a) changes in knowledge production - causes and forms, and (b) communication of scientific knowledge in the process of political expression. The book thereby gives an impression of the diversity and productiveness of scientific research.
Dynamiken weltweiter Stadt- und Verkehrsentwicklung
Mobilität und Gesellschaft, Bd. 2
Mobilität und Gesellschaft, Bd. 2
For the first time in human history, most of the world's population now lives in cities, not rural areas. This worldwide urbanization coincides with a headlong social and spatial mobilization of whole societies. Whereas urbanization and the expansion of transport have more or less climaxed in the traditional industrialized countries, they have gained enormous momentum in the developing world and countries undergoing transformation. Because of limited resources and ecological effects, however, catch-up modernization modeled on the western pattern is bound to have adverse global impacts. Against this background, the volume provides the first international comparative review of current and foreseeable trends in transport and urban development in the highly industrialized regions of the world as well as in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. The goal is to ascertain the scale of the global challenges that are entailed, to infer possible fields of action and clear options, and to determine whether examples of sustainable alternative paths of development exist. The authors show that there is little or no evidence of the reversal that they hold to be necessary and conclude by offering their own thoughts for an innovative way to deal with the problems they point out.
War and Democratization: Legality, Legitimacy and Effectiveness
Democratization, Vol. 15, No. 3, Special Issue, June 2008
Promotion of democracy in post-war and post-conflict societies became a hot topic during the 1990s. External actors linked their peace-building efforts to the promotion of democracy. Four modes of promotion of democracy by external actors can be distinguished: (1) enforcing democratization by enduring post-war occupation; (2) restoring an elected government by military intervention; (3) intervening in on-going massacres and civil war with military forces ("humanitarian intervention") and thereby curbing the national sovereignty of those countries; and (4) forcing democracy on rogue states by "democratic intervention", in other words, democracy through war. In this special issue we consider the legality, legitimacy, and effectiveness of the four modes where the international community of states not only felt impelled to engage in military humanitarian or peace-building missions but also in long-term state- and democracy-building. All cases analysed here suggest that embedding democratization in post-war and post-conflict societies entails a comprehensive agenda of political, social, and economic methods of peace-building. If external actors withdraw before the roots of democracy are deep enough and before democratic institutions are strong enough to stand alone, then the entire endeavour may fail.
Migrations- und Integrationsprozesse in Europa
Vergemeinschaftung oder nationalstaatliche Lösungswege?
Political management of immigration and the integration of immigrants was long a stronghold of national sovereignty. In the wake of Europe's growing economic and political integration, however, national responsibilities relating to immigration have, as in other fields of policy, been partially surrendered to the European Union. The path to supranational regulation in this area has thereby opened. But despite increasing convergence, the integration of immigrants in Europe today is by no means progressing uniformly. National polices on immigration and integration still differ considerably, as does success at integration - the labor market being one example. These changed contexts of migration policies and integration processes in Europe are examined this volume. Dealing with dynamics currently affecting migration policies, the contributions in the first part of the book focus on the tensions between European efforts at harmonization and national claims to a role in shaping the processes involved. In the second part there emerges a multifaceted picture of social integration processes in Germany and other states of the European Union.
Schriftenreihe der Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, Bd. 693
Schriftenreihe der Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, Bd. 693
Is Germany equipped for the future? Despite reforms now in progress, doubts dominate current debates on this question. In this volume scientists from all the research units of the WZB discuss the country's future viability from different disciplinary perspectives and try to improve it by making proposals for action. Among the issues that the contributions deal with are demographic challenge, the social welfare system, inequality, work, migration, foreign policy, democratic development, industry and innovation, as well as the state's budgetary crisis and fiscal capacity to act. The authors identify structural constraints as well as opportunities for reform and outline possible scenarios for the coming decades. International comparative analysis shows that the Federal Republic of Germany offers no more than mediocrity in many areas. The resulting overall picture is accordingly mixed. Whereas the judgment of the political system includes such terms as underperformance, gridlock, and low sustainability, the appraisal of the country's socioeconomic development, the impacts of demographic change, the family system, and especially the dynamics of civil society reflects positive and negative findings. The greatest willingness to steer a different course is discerned in the areas of business and society, with the increasing engagement of individuals and companies in common affairs being particularly important.
Social Democracy in Power
Routledge Research in Comparative Politics
Globalization, European integration, and social change have devaluated traditional social democratic policy instruments. This book compares and explores how social democratic governments have had to adapt and whether they have successfully managed to uphold old social democratic goals and values in the light of these challenges. The volume examines the policy measures of social democratic parties in government in a comparative framework. The authors focus on traditional social democratic goals and tools, in particular, fiscal, employment, and social policy, in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Denmark. They identify three policy patterns in social democratic governments: traditional, modernized, and liberalized social democracy and provide a comparative account of the explanatory power of the national context for policy adopted by social democratic parties. Although in some cases differences in policy and performance between the six governments correspond to the programmatic position of the social democratic party, they are primarily attributable - in this order - to the specific structure of national party competition, to the behaviour of trade unions, and to institutional veto points.
The Political Economy of International Tax Governance
Transformation of the State Series
This volume deals with an issue that has so far received little attention: the fate of the "power to tax", one of the key attributes of the modern nation state, in an era of globalization. It shows that while tax sovereignty is shaped and constrained in important ways by an international tax regime, international tax rules will need to be strengthened in the future. The book presents a theory-driven empirical account of the establishment, institutional form and transformation of international tax governance, from the 1920s, when it was solely concerned with the avoidance of double taxation, up to the present era of international tax competition. The book opens up a new field of research for Political Scientists and Political Economists and offers experts in international taxation a fresh perspective on their subject. At the same time, it relates to current debates on international institutions and global governance.
Die sozialen Bewegungen in Deutschland seit 1945
Be it protests against emergency power acts or nuclear power plants, be it campaigns by unions or feminist groups - German history is also a history of social movements and is understandable only if they are examined. It is not simply that social movements have firmly secured a place in the repertoire of civic involvement over the decades, they have come to meet with increasing approval as conventional forms of political participation in political parties and associations. This handbook offers the first extensive overview of the many different social movements in the Federal Republic of German and the German Democratic Republic and places them in their historical context. The first part of the volume covers characteristic phases in German postwar history in chronological order, describing the factors that have shaped and challenged the movements. The 21 chapters of the second part are devoted to individual movements and protest networks focused on particular topic areas. The uniform presentation facilitates comparisons between social and other movements; historical antecedents and points of departure; lines of development, ideologies, and objectives; organizations and networks; strategies and operations; and effects and perspectives. The concluding chapter assesses the theoretical and empirical record.
Nur Clowns und Chaoten?
Die G8-Proteste in Heiligendamm im Spiegel der Massenmedien
The G8 summit in Heiligendamm, Germany, in June 2007 and the protests directed against it were a media spectacle. Images of pop concerts, Greenpeace activists in dinghies, and protest camps circulated widely, but so did scenes of violent excesses. The meeting's promoters and organizers as well as its critics and opponents all tried to attract audience attention and favor by reaching out in the broadest sense - through PR, with set-piece presentations intended for external consumption, and in battles over interpretations and the power to put them across. As the most important intermediary, the mass media encountered various actors seeking to make their competing positions heard. This volume contains analyses of the publicly visible media response to the happenings associated with the summit. Social scientists, media creators, and activists reconstruct what picture the mass media drew of the protests and what role journalists, official police spokesmen, and protesters had in that process. What influence did they have on the way in which television audiences and newspaper readers perceived what was taking place? The production conditions and self-concept of the journalists are examined, too, as is the manner in which the protest groups dealt with the media and their reporting.
Politische Diskurse im Internet und in Zeitungen
Das Beispiel Genfood
To many people the Internet is an instrument capable of facilitating public debate that encompasses a far broader spectrum of actors and points of view on actual political issues than customary mass media does. The Internet, it is said, can therefore help democratize public discourse and ground it in rational argumentation. The volume presents a quantitative empirical analysis of this assumption in German-speaking regions, with the dispute about the use and dangers of genetically modified foods serving as the focus. The authors conduct both conventional content analysis and a methodologically innovative analysis of hyperlinks and websites. The results show that those users who turn to Google as a search engine see only relatively small differences between the Internet and serious newspapers. Moreover, the Internet seems to contribute to a fragmentation of political communication.
Rote Rüben auf dem Olivaer Platz
Quellen zur Ernährungskrise in der Nachkriegszeit Berlins 1945-1949
Dahlemer Materialien, Bd. 7
Dahlemer Materialien, Bd. 7
This edition of sources deals with the nutritional crisis that gripped Berlin from 1945 to 1949 and documents the consequences of the severe supply problems at that time. Partly cut off from direct links to its environs, the city with its millions of inhabitants faced extraordinary challenges. The sources document private, communal, and Allied efforts to keep the population supplied. They provide answers to the question of the extent to which that task was mastered and indicate the points at which the supply system reached its limits. The book calls to mind the everyday experiences of the people who lived through it all in Berlin, brings home voices and feelings associated with those times of hunger, and illustrates personal and communal action as well as selfish, unscrupulous behavior in that critical period. In addition to the ambivalence characterizing the action of a public administration hemmed in by bureaucratic regulations, the sources also show the constant endeavor to ensure fair distribution of the limited food that was available.
Unlike the customary understanding of political culture, the expanded concept in this volume is not confined to grasping the population's political attitudes and basic values as cultural preconditions for the stability of political systems. The author's interest goes beyond such individual, subjective orientations. It includes the social factors shaping them: the way people communicate and deal with each other in society at large, the way conflicts are handled and solved, and the nature of a society's structural and institutional infrastructure that flanks and channels different kinds of behavior and social interaction. Numerous examples illustrate the diversity and ramifications of political culture, which reflects a polity's abiding traditions, characteristic institutional features, legal order, culture of remembering, and collective dreams and myths. Key concepts thoroughly discussed in this context are the public sphere, communication, institutions, and law. The book concludes with an attempt to determine what identifies the political culture of a democratic state based on the rule of law.
Governance von und durch Wissen
Schriften zur Governance-Forschung, Bd. 12
To perform its tasks, the state depends on the generation of knowledge through the acquisition, transmission, and processing of information. Sufficient access to knowledge is the very root of empowerment and authority. Over the years, however, confidence in the range of that knowledge seems to have steadily eroded. The enormous expansion of "bedrock knowledge", especially through the natural sciences, is making it ever clearer how much we do not know. Even the Enlightenment's concept of "rule through knowledge" is becoming brittle. Its theoretical, institutional, legal, and technological dimensions are examined from a variety of disciplinary perspectives, especially the recent discussion of governance. It becomes apparent that the traditional form of knowledge production in society (that which takes place in the academic sciences) is no longer the only one. New kinds of problem-oriented knowledge production are being pursued by many different actors such as NGOs, think tanks, and commercial research institutes working in nonhierarchical networks of increasingly transnational scope. The book raises the question of the challenges that this development poses for the legal framework and governance of knowledge production by the state.
Governance in einer sich wandelnden Welt
Politische Vierteljahresschrift, Sonderheft 41/2008
Taking root in political science and other disciplines in the 1990s, the term governance has been rapidly gaining currency ever since. But the various meanings attributed to it and the different ways it is used blur it a good deal. The aim of this volume is to help clarify the term and its underlying concept. In recognition that the shift from "control" to "governance" is not just semantic, the contributing authors deal with social and political problem-solving structures in the context of transformation in the public sector. A special feature of the book is its multidisciplinary approach to the subject, which includes analytic insights from the fields of political science and law. The first part is devoted to the conceptual delimitation and contours of a theory of governance. The second part addresses the relation between law and governance in order to gain an understanding of governance as the coordination of what actors do in regulatory structures. The third and fourth parts inquire into new forms and modes of governance at the national and transnational levels. The book concludes with interim conclusions about the fruits of research on governance thus far and with a proposal for defining the concept.
Lob der Vielfalt
Jahrbuch Ökologie 2009
The Ecology Yearbook, now appearing for the eighteenth time, is a source of information about ecological conditions and impact trends in the various domains of the natural environment. It analyzes national and international environmental policy, documents historically important environmental events, describes positive day-to-day interaction with nature, and maps out visions of a sustainable world. The new yearbook focuses on biological diversity. The loss of biodiversity is a global ecological problem whose scope and consequences are as obscure to the public as the matter of what can be done about it. The chapters and examples in this book thus deal primarily with the value of nature and the preservation of biological diversity as such. Yet because the human being is as much the guardian of nature as its destroyer, this volume is also about the economic and ecological damages of losing biodiversity. The section entitled "Thinking Ahead" again honors selected individuals whose contributions to understanding and protecting the environment deserve special tribute.
Ein Sozialbericht für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland
The Data Report, first published in 1983 and appearing now in its twelfth edition, once again offers a combination of official statistics and social science research on objective circumstances of life and the subjective well-being of the population in Germany. Its new format presents more than 40 chapters arranged into 16 topic areas in which living conditions and the quality of life are comprehensively described and analyzed. The volume's comparative perspective frequently encompasses other member states of the European Union. As in previous editions, relevant differences between trends in eastern and western Germany are pointed out. Key topics include the development of the social safety net, attitudes toward the welfare state and social policy, the development and distribution of income, satisfaction with various areas of life (e.g., household income, health, and democracy), social stratification and social situations, and political and social participation and integration.